Emergency First Response

Want to be ready in an emergency? Then this program is for you!

The first aid, CPR and AED programs covers basic training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) First Aid and emergency care. In addition, it’s a medically based program covering primary care, some secondary care and treatments following national consensus guidelines.

The program is designed for divers and non divers, and also meets the CPR and first aid prerequisite for earning your PADI Rescue Diver.

So if you’re seeking CPR/first aid training, which meet a diving program requirement or for personal enhancement, this program is for YOU.

Emergency First Response Programs

Emergency First Response (EFR) is the fastest-growing international CPR, Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) and First Aid training organization. Dedicated to training the lay rescuer, EFR courses encompasses adult, child and infant CPR skills, provides AED and First Aid training, and feature an outstanding First Aid at Work component. The company’s award-winning programs and state-of-the-art training materials make it a favourite among divers around the world.

Many divers take the Emergency First Response courses to meet program prerequisites, such as PADI Rescue Diver, or as preparation for becoming a PADI Divemaster. However, most have also found the EFR program to be important in every day life. They have taken a significant step in emergency preparedness, and feel confident that they can provide care should an emergency situation arise.

How Not To Give CPR

Primary Care (CPR)

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) teaches you how to deal with emergencies that are immediately life threatening. You will focus on primary care through a combination of knowledge development, skill development and realistic scenario practice to make sure you have the knowledge, understanding and confidence to use your skills.

The Primary Care (CPR) skills:
Scene Assessment
Barrier Use
Primary Assessment
Rescue Breathing
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Serious bleeding management
Shock management
Spinal injury management

You may also participate in an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training component, learn how to help a conscious choking adult and have an emergency oxygen use orientation.

Secondary Care (first aid)

Secondary Care (first aid) covers injuries or illnesses that are not immediately life threatening or when local EMS is unavailable or delayed. You focus on secondary assessment and first aid through knowledge development, skill development and realistic scenario practice.

The Secondary Care (first aid) skills:
Injury Assessment
Illness Assessment
Splintering for Dislocations and Fractures

Emergency First Response Instructor Courses – Crossover Programs:
The Emergency First Response Crossover Program is open to any Person who is above or who are Medic First Aid Instructors, and above who are current CPR/First Aid Primary and Secondary Skills, also Instructors with another organizations too.

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) Course Content

Emergency First Response Primary Care (CPR) teaches participants how to respond to life-threatening emergencies. The course focuses on primary care through a combination of knowledge development, skill development and realistic scenario practice to make sure participants have the confidence in their ability to provide care when emergency situations arise. Primary Care (CPR) skills taught in this course:

Scene Safety Assessment Universal Precautions – Communicable Disease Protection, including barrier use Primary Assessment Rescue Breathing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Conscious and Unconscious Obstructed Airway Management Serious Bleeding Management Shock Management Spinal Injury Management

Recommended Skills:

  • Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training
  • Emergency Oxygen Use Orientation

Emergency First Response Secondary Care (First Aid) Course Content

Emergency First Response Secondary Care (first aid) covers injuries or illnesses that are not immediately life threatening. Participants focus on secondary assessment and first aid through knowledge development, skill development and realistic scenario practice.

Secondary Skills taught in this course:

  • Injury Assessment
  • Illness Assessment
  • Bandaging
  • Splinting for Dislocations and Fractures

Includes Reference Section on the following topics:

Allergic Reactions, Bruises, Burns, Chemical Burns, CPR (adult, child, infant) Choking (adult and infant), Cone Shell Stings, Coral, Jellyfish and Hydroid Stings, Cuts, Dental Injuries, Diabetic Problems, Dislocations and Fractures, Electrical Injuries, Eye Injuries, First Aid Kit Assembly, Fish Spine Injury, Frostbite, Heat Exhaustion, Heatstroke, Heart Attack, Hypothermia, Illness Assessment, Injury Assessment, Insect Stings, Octopus Bites, Poisoning, Rescue Breathing (adult, child, infant) Scrapes, Seizures, Snake Bites, Spider Bites, Sprains and Strains, Stroke, Temperature Related Injuries, Venomous Bites and Stings, and Illness Assessment Record Sheet.

Emergency First Response Care for Children Course

The Emergency First Response Care for Children course is an innovative CPR, AED and First Aid training course that teaches participants how to provide emergency care for injured or ill children (ages one to eight) and infants less than one year old. Participants learn about the types of medical emergencies that children face, and how they differ from adult conditions. The curriculum also includes the importance of attending to basic emergency situations with children, the emotional aspects of caring for children, secondary care for children, and preventing common injuries and illnesses in children.

Emergency First Response Care for Children course trains the lay rescuer to follow the same priorities of care used by medical professionals. The student masters the priorities and the procedures of patient care for infants and children in a non-stressful learning environment, which reduces the performance anxieties that interfere with learning and enhances confidence when rendering aid in a real medical emergency.

The course includes both primary care (CPR) and secondary care (first aid) skills. The primary care portion of the course prepares the rescuer to render aid to an infant or child with a life-threatening emergency such as choking or cardiac arrest. Secondary care focuses on developing secondary patient care skills and building the rescuer’s confidence to render first aid to an infant or child in need when emergency medical services are either delayed or unavailable. The Care for Children course content is based on guidelines from the Pediatric Working Group of ILCOR.

Care for Children Primary Care Course Content:

Scene Safety Assessment Universal Precautions-Communicable Disease Protection & Barrier Use Primary Assessment Obstructed Airway Management (child and infant) Rescue Breathing (child and infant) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (child and infant) Automated External Defibrillator (AED) use Serious Bleeding Shock Management Spinal Injury Management.

Care for Children Secondary Care Course Content:

  • Injury Assessment
  • Bandaging
  • Illness Assessment.

Here are Tips and samples of the Course:


Life saving procedures

The Emergency First Response course is an innovative CPR / First Aid program, which is split into two segments; Primary Care (CPR) and Secondary Care (First Aid). In addition we also offer full Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training. As a first aider the priorities when dealing with a casualty are always the same:

  • Airway
  • Breathing
  • Circulation
  • Defibulation

A primary survey of a casualty will establish your priorities. When dealing with an unconscious casualty you should open and maintain their airway as your first priority. If the airway should become obstructed, possibly by the tongue falling to the back of the throat, then the casualty will be unable to breathe and this will lead to death if untreated.

If the casualty is breathing, the simple procedure of placing the casualty in to the recovery position should ensure that the airway will remain clear of obstructions.

If the casualty has stopped breathing you can assist them by performing a combination of chest compressions and rescue breaths. You breathe out enough oxygen to potentially keep the casualty alive until the emergency services arrive, the oxygen you breathe into the casualty will need to then be pumped around the body using chest compressions.

Automated External Defibrillation (AED) course builds on the skills learned in the Primary Care (CPR) or the ABC,s to teach the proper AED use. This life saving device can increase a patient’s chance of survival from a cardiac arrest and heart related problems by about fifty percent.

It is important to remember that in any life threatening situation the emergency services should be called as soon as breathing or absence of breathing has been identified.

Heart attacks and shock

Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the vital organs, such as the brain and heart are deprived of oxygen due to a problem affecting the circulatory system. The most common cause of shock is blood loss but can be caused by other fluid loss such as vomiting or severe burns. Shock may also be caused when the heart has been damaged in some way, such as heart attack or angina and is unable to pump an adequate supply to the body.

The recognition features of shock include:

  • Pale, cold, clammy skin (skin could become blue/grey in appearance in severe shock, lips especially may appear blue)
  • Sweating
  • Weakness and dizziness
  • Feeling sick and possibly vomiting
  • Thirst
  • Rapid, shallow breathing.

If shock is not treated the casualty will:

  • Become restless and aggressive
  • Start yawning and gasping for air
  • Lose consciousness.

Eventually the heart will stop.

Hands-OnlyTM CPR

April 23, 2010 – CPR. A lifesaving action.

[flash http://handsonlycpr.org/# mode=1]

When an adult has a sudden cardiac arrest, his or her survival depends greatly on immediately getting CPR from someone nearby. Unfortunately, less than 1/3 of those people who experience a cardiac arrest at home, work or in a public location get that help. Most bystanders are worried that they might do something wrong or make things worse. That’s why the AHA has simplified things.

Don’t be afraid. Your actions can only help!

It’s not normal to see an adult suddenly collapse, but if you do, call 911 or the local number for the Emergency Services and push hard and fast in the center of the chest. Don’t be afraid. Your actions can only help. Take a minute and look around this site and invite your friends! Increasing the number of people who know about Hands-OnlyTM CPR will increase the chance that someone can help when an adult suddenly collapses, and more lives can be saved.

Hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar)


When the blood-sugar level falls below normal (hypoglycaemia) brain function is affected. This problem is sometimes recognised by a rapidly deteriorating level of response.

Hypoglycaemia can occur in people with diabetes mellitus and, more rarely, appear with an epileptic seizure or after an episode of binge drinking. It can also complicate heat exhaustion or hypothermia.

Recognition features

There may be:

  • A history of diabetes; the casualty may recognise the onset of a “hypo” attack.
  • Weakness, faintness, or hunger.
  • Palpitations and muscle tremors.
  • Strange actions or behaviour; the casualty may seem confused or belligerent.
  • Sweating and cold, clammy skin.
  • Pulse may be rapid and strong.
  • Deteriorating level of response.
  • Diabetic’s warning card, glucose gel, tablets, or an insulin syringe in casualty’s possessions.


Your aim is to raise the sugar content of the blood as quickly as possible and to obtain medical help if necessary.

  • Help the casualty to sit or lie down.
  • Give them a sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate or any other sweet food. Don’t give them diet drinks; they don’t have the sugar in them that they need.
  • Alternatively if the patient has their own glucose gel helps them to take it.

If the casualty responds quickly:

  • Give them more food and drink and let them rest until they feel better.
  • Advise them to see their doctor even if they feel fully recovered.

Warning! If their consciousness is impaired don’t give them anything to eat or drink as they may not be able to swallow or drink it properly.

If the condition does not improve:

  • Monitor the level of response and look for any other possible causes.

If the casualty is unconscious:

  • Open the airway and check breathing. (primary survey)
  • Give chest compressions and rescue breaths if necessary.
  • If the patient loses consciousness but is still breathing normally place them in the recovery position.
  • Dial 999 or 112 for an ambulance.
  • Always monitor and record the vital signs, levels of response, pulse and breathing for instance and give this information to the emergency services when they arrive.

Wounds and bleeding

Any break in the surface of the skin (wound), will not only allow blood and other fluids to be lost, but allow germs to enter the body. If the wound is minor, the aim of the first aider is to prevent infection. Severe wounds may be very daunting to deal with but the aim is to prevent further blood loss and minimise the shock that could result from the bleeding.

Some closed wounds such as bruising could indicate an underlying injury and first aiders need to be aware of the cause of injury as this may alert you to a more serious condition, such as internal bleeding.

Any open wound is at risk of becoming infected, it is important to maintain good hygiene procedures to guard against prevent cross infection between yourself and the casualty.

  • Bleeding
  • Nosebleeds
  • Foreign objects in the eye




  • Give lots of comfort and reassurance and persuade them to stay still.
  • Do not move the casualty unless you have to.
  • Steady and support the injured limb with your hands to stop any movement.
  • If there is bleeding, press a clean pad over the wound to control the flow of blood. Then bandage on and around the wound.
  • If you suspect a broken leg, put padding between the knees and ankles. Form a splint (to immobilise the leg further) by gently, but firmly, bandaging the good leg to the bad one at the knees and ankles, then above and below the injury. If it is an arm that is broken, improvise a sling to support the arm close to the body.
  • Dial 999 for an ambulance.
  • If it does not distress the casualty too much, raise and support the injured limb.
  • Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink in case an operation is necessary.
  • Watch out for signs of shock.

Head injuries


All head injuries are potentially serious and require proper assessment because they can result in impaired consciousness. Injuries may be associated with damage to the brain tissue or to blood vessels inside the skull, or with a skull fracture.

A head injury may produce concussion, which is a brief period of unconsciousness followed by complete recovery. Some head injuries may produce compression of the brain (cerebral compression), which is life-threatening. It is therefore important to be able to recognise possible signs of cerebral compression – in particular, a deteriorating level of response.

A head wound should alert you to the risk of deeper, underlying damage, such as a skull fracture, which may be serious. Bleeding inside the skull may also occur and lead to compression. Clear fluid or watery blood leaking from the ear or nose are signs of serious injury.

Any casualty with an injury to the head should be assumed to have a neck (spinal) injury as well and be treated accordingly.

Effects of heat and cold

The human body normally regulates its own temperature very well, but can be affected in a number of ways when it suffers the effect of extreme temperature, in particular the very young or elderly are the most susceptible to the effects of heat and cold.

Contact to hot materials/surfaces can cause burns or scalds, the longer the contact the more severe the injury will be. Corrosive chemicals can also cause burns. Exposure to extreme heat can cause conditions such sunburn, prickly heat and possibly heatstroke. Extreme cold can also lead to hypothermia and frost bite.

First aiders should always remember ensure that any danger to you is removed before attempting to commence treatment.

Breathing problems

Breathing is vital to life. Every time we breathe, we not only take oxygen in but breathe carbon dioxide out. Without oxygen the cells of the body will start to die in about three minutes.

Breathing problems can be caused a number of ways; it may be through injury, such as damage to the chest wall, or disease such as cancer or emphysema. Some respiratory conditions, such as asthma or hyperventilation, can have a rapid onset and may need assistance from first aiders.


Introduction to poisons

A poison – also called a toxin – is a substance which, if taken into the body in sufficient quantity, may cause temporary or permanent damage.

Poisons can be swallowed, absorbed through the skin, inhaled, splashed into the eyes, or injected. Once in the body, they may enter the bloodstream and be carried swiftly to all organs and tissues. Recognition features vary with the poison – they may develop quickly or over a number of days.

See the individual tips for recognition features and treatment of specific poisons.


Please note:

These hints and Tips are no substitute for thorough knowledge and Skills taught on our First Aid Courses, Inquire for more details. It could happen to you one day!


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